Concrete is one of the most common building materials. No construction, from the construction of a huge shopping center, and ending with the construction of a barn with your hands, is complete without the use of this building mix. But in order for the resulting structure to be of high quality and meet the requirements of the normative documentation, it is necessary to correctly calculate the proportions of the concrete solution. This will be discussed below.
Concrete mix – the basis of modern construction
Building Blend Components
The ready-mixed concrete solution is a fluid mixture of four main components:
Cement – a substance for binding, which is the basis of many mortars. Externally similar to the smaller powder of a characteristic gray color, which contains limestone and forms a solid crystalline structure on the wetting.
The filling material is gravel or crushed stone for concrete, as well as their mixture with sand. There are different types of ballast filler, depending on the brand of concrete and its purpose. For the production of concrete it is a suitable substance with a fraction of over 0.5 cm.
Construction sand: the size of a separate grain of sand must be between 0.1 and 5 mm. There are several varieties of this bulk material, but the best is considered the river. Its rounded particles penetrate perfectly into the pores of other building materials and a small mixture of clay makes the solution more viscous.
Water is a component that binds together all the other substances that enter the cement.
The main components of concrete
be careful! The same components, with the exception of the filler, are used in the mixture of the usual mortar used for laying bricks, stones, plasters and other finishing works.
It should be noted that when laying some types of artificial stone it is not advisable to use cement mortars: for aerated concrete blocks, for example, a special adhesive composition is more suitable. Even if its price is slightly higher, the result will justify these costs.
Selection of proportions
Before making a concrete solution, it is necessary to determine the scope of its application. The proportions of the components mixed in the concrete mixer depend directly on it.
The instructions for using concrete include the following:
For the fusion of concrete foundations for the construction of a small concrete for private residential buildings with a filler, whose dimensions range from 20 to 30 mm, it should be used . The amount of cement used must be such that the other components are firmly fixed together, but the mixture is fluid. This will allow you to buffer the concrete, releasing air bubbles.
If you need to make a concrete pad, you can use the simplest cement recipe, which, in addition to cement and water, includes only coarse-grained river sand. . Its consistency should be similar to damp soil.
The small fraction of the filler is indispensable in cases where it is supposed that it generates products of complex shape : balustrades, decorative elements, garden tools and so on.